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LITERARY FORMS

LITERARY FORMS

SATIRE
Satire is a work of art of diminishing a subject by making it ridiculous and evoking toward it attitudes of amusement , contempt, scorn, or indignation. It differs from the comic in that comedy evokes laughter mainly as an end in itself, while satire derides i.e. it uses laughter as a weapon, and against a butt that exists outside the work itself. That butt may be an individual, or a type of person, a class, an institution, a nation or even mankind.

 Satire may be classified as follows:

 i. Formal satire: In it the satiric persona speaks out in the first person. This ‘I’may address either the reader or else a character within the work itself.

 ii. Horatian satire: In it, the speaker manifests the character of an urbane, witty and tolerant man of the world, who is moved more often to worry amusement than to indignation at the spectacle of human folly, pretentiousness, and hypocrisy, and who uses a relaxed and informal language to evoke from readers a wry smile …
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T.S. ELIOT –
 THE WASTE LAND Short Summary
The poem begins with a section entitled .......

"The Burial of the Dead." In it, the narrator -- perhaps a representation of Eliot himself -- describes the seasons. Spring brings "memory and desire," and so the narrator's memory drifts back to times in Munich, to childhood sled rides, and to a possible romance with a "hyacinth girl." The memories only go so far, however. The narrator is now surrounded by a desolate land full of "stony rubbish." He remembers a fortune-teller named Madame Sosostris who said he was "the drowned Phoenician Sailor" and that he should "fear death by water." Next he finds himself on London Bridge, surrounded by a crowd of people. He spots a friend of his from wartime, and calls out to him.

The next section, "A Game of Chess," transports the reader abruptly from the streets of London to a gilded drawing room, in which sits a rich, jewel-…

The romantic period

The Romantic Period
(1798-1832)

A period marked by great changes in England and the Western world.

England experienced the ordeal of change; shifting from an agricultural society with landholders being the wealthy (aristocratic), to an industrial nation where power shifted to large-scale employers who had to deal with an enlarging working class
There were constant economic cycles of:
These threatened social structures
Three revolutions occurred prior to and within this time period affecting Britain tremendously:
American Revolution  1776 (dealt Britain heavy military and economic losses)
French Revolution  1789 (drew England back into costly wars)
Industrial Revolution
The term Industrial Revolution evolved as power machinery began replacing hand labor
Two Nations developed (capitol and labor), the wealthy industry owners and the poor wage workers/(working class)
A laissez-faire (hands off”) philosophy formed which held that the government should not interfere with private enterprise…

Chaucer Canterbury tales summary and characterization and facts

Chaucer Canterbury tales summary and characterization and facts.......

The Canterbury Tales

πŸ”†πŸ”†The Canterbury Tales begins with the introduction of each of the pilgrims making their journey to Canterbury to the shrine of Thomas a Becket. These pilgrims include a Knight, his son the Squire, the Knight's Yeoman, a Prioress, a Second Nun, a Monk, a Friar, a Merchant, a Clerk, a Man of Law, a Franklin, a Weaver, a Dyer, a Carpenter, a Tapestry-Maker, a Haberdasher, a Cook, a Shipman, a Physician, a Parson, a Miller, a Manciple, a Reeve, a Summoner, a Pardoner, the Wife of Bath, and Chaucer himself. Congregating at the Tabard Inn, the pilgrims decide to tell stories to pass their time on the way to Canterbury. The Host of the Tabard Inn sets the rules for the tales. Each of the pilgrims will tell two stories on the way to Canterbury, and two stories on the return trip. The Host will decide whose tale is best for meaningfulness and for fun. They decide to draw lots to see who will tel…

Thomas kyd works and facts

Thomas kyd works and facts Thomas Kyd was the son of Francis Kyd, a scrivener, or professional scribe, of London. He received his education at the Merchant Taylors' School, a well-respected, fairly progressive school attended by sons of middle-class citizens of London. Thomas Kyd was one of the most important Elizabethan dramatists who preceded William Shakespeare. Kyd was a seminal force (having a strong influence on later developments) in Elizabethan drama. He is the father of the revenge tragedy, if not of English tragedy. It was he who introduced blank verse to the English drama before Marlowe. It was Kyd who adopted the academic Senecan tragedy to the popular theater. He is the first great English master of melodrama. He was well-acquainted with the classics and most likely was fluent in Latin and Greek. His works include The Spanish Tragedy, Soliman and Perseda, etc. Through his play The Spanish Tragedy, Kyd introduced the genre of “revenge tragedy” to English literature. Th…

CHINUA ACHEBE: works and important facts

CHINUA ACHEBE: works and important facts......
           He was born on 16 November, 1930 and died on 21 March, 2013. He was a Nigerian novelist, poet, professor, and critic. He was grown up by his parents in the Igbo town of Ogidi in southeastern Nigeria. His first novel Things Fall Apart (1958) was considered his masterpiece in modern African literature. Achebe wrote his novels in English and defended the use of English, a "language of colonisers", in African literature. Achebe's novels focus on the traditions of Igbo society, the effect of Christian influences, and the clash of Western and traditional African values during colonial period. He was told many stories by his mother and sister. This helped him to express his ideas through his novels. Achebe criticized Joseph Conrad as ""a bloody racist”, in one of his lectures An Image of Africa: Racism in Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" in 1975. Achebe asserted that Conrad's famous novel dehuman…

Shakespeare life and works

Shakespeare life and works

William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist. He is often called England's national poet, and the "Bard of Avon".

The Life of William Shakespeare (1564–1616)
Within the class system of Elizabethan England, William Shakespeare did not seem destined for greatness. He was not born into a family of nobility or significant wealth. He did not continue his formal education at university, nor did he come under the mentorship of a senior artist, nor did he marry into wealth or prestige. His talent as an actor seems to have been modest, since he is not known for starring roles. His success as a playwright depended in part upon royal patronage. Yet in spite of these limitations, Shakespeare is now the most performed and read playwright in the world.

Born to John Shakespeare, a glovemaker and tradesman, and Mary Arden, the daughter o…